## Regression Model in R Programming

Regression Model In R Programming

library(tidyverse)
## -- Attaching packages --------------------------------------- tidyverse 1.3.1 --
## v ggplot2 3.3.5     v purrr   0.3.4
## v tibble  3.1.4     v dplyr   1.0.7
## v tidyr   1.1.3     v stringr 1.4.0
## v readr   2.0.1     v forcats 0.5.1
## -- Conflicts ------------------------------------------ tidyverse_conflicts() --
## x dplyr::filter() masks stats::filter()
## x dplyr::lag()    masks stats::lag()
library(ggplot2)
library(naniar)
library(dplyr)
library(datasets)
library(tinytex)
library(DT)
data("mtcars")

head(mtcars)
##                    mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
## Mazda RX4         21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
## Mazda RX4 Wag     21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
## Datsun 710        22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
## Hornet 4 Drive    21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
## Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2
## Valiant           18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1

# Transform certain variables into factors

mtcars$cyl <- factor(mtcars$cyl)
mtcars$am <- factor(mtcars$am,labels=c("Automatic","Manual"))
mtcars$vs <- factor(mtcars$vs)
mtcars$gear <- factor(mtcars$gear)
mtcars$carb <- factor(mtcars$carb)
boxplot(mpg ~ am, data = mtcars, col = (c("purple","red")), ylab = "Miles Per Gallon", xlab = "Type of Transmission", main = "MPG Vs AM")

aggregate(mpg~am, data = mtcars, mean)
##          am      mpg
## 1 Automatic 17.14737
## 2    Manual 24.39231

## Difference of MPG between Automatic and Manual

24.39231 - 17.14737
## [1] 7.24494

## We can now use a t-test here

automatic_car <- mtcars[mtcars$am == "Automatic",] manual_car <- mtcars[mtcars$am == "Manual",]
t.test(automatic_car$mpg, manual_car$mpg)
##
##  Welch Two Sample t-test
##
## data:  automatic_car$mpg and manual_car$mpg
## t = -3.7671, df = 18.332, p-value = 0.001374
## alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0
## 95 percent confidence interval:
##  -11.280194  -3.209684
## sample estimates:
## mean of x mean of y
##  17.14737  24.39231

# We can see that the p-value is 0.001374, thus we can state this is a significant difference. Now to quantify this, we can use the following code :

model_1  <- lm(mpg ~ am, data = mtcars)
summary(model_1)
##
## Call:
## lm(formula = mpg ~ am, data = mtcars)
##
## Residuals:
##     Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max
## -9.3923 -3.0923 -0.2974  3.2439  9.5077
##
## Coefficients:
##             Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
## (Intercept)   17.147      1.125  15.247 1.13e-15 ***
## amManual       7.245      1.764   4.106 0.000285 ***
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
##
## Residual standard error: 4.902 on 30 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared:  0.3598, Adjusted R-squared:  0.3385
## F-statistic: 16.86 on 1 and 30 DF,  p-value: 0.000285

## Before plotting the corrplot, we will check the structure of the data ;

df_1 <- subset(mtcars, select = c(mpg,cyl,disp,hp,drat,wt,qsec,vs))

head(df_1)
##                    mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs
## Mazda RX4         21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0
## Mazda RX4 Wag     21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0
## Datsun 710        22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1
## Hornet 4 Drive    21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1
## Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0
## Valiant           18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1
str(df_1)
## 'data.frame':    32 obs. of  8 variables:
##  $mpg : num 21 21 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 ... ##$ cyl : Factor w/ 3 levels "4","6","8": 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 ...
##  $disp: num 160 160 108 258 360 ... ##$ hp  : num  110 110 93 110 175 105 245 62 95 123 ...
##  $drat: num 3.9 3.9 3.85 3.08 3.15 2.76 3.21 3.69 3.92 3.92 ... ##$ wt  : num  2.62 2.88 2.32 3.21 3.44 ...
##  $qsec: num 16.5 17 18.6 19.4 17 ... ##$ vs  : Factor w/ 2 levels "0","1": 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 ...

# Here we can see that, cyl and vs columns are in factor, we will now convert this into numeric to plot corrplot and check the correlation.

df_1$cyl <- as.character(df_1$cyl)

df_1$cyl <- as.numeric(df_1$cyl)

df_1$vs <- as.character(df_1$vs)

df_1$vs <- as.numeric(df_1$vs)

# Now we can check the structure of the data again
str(df_1)
## 'data.frame':    32 obs. of  8 variables:
##  $mpg : num 21 21 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 ... ##$ cyl : num  6 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 4 6 ...
##  $disp: num 160 160 108 258 360 ... ##$ hp  : num  110 110 93 110 175 105 245 62 95 123 ...
##  $drat: num 3.9 3.9 3.85 3.08 3.15 2.76 3.21 3.69 3.92 3.92 ... ##$ wt  : num  2.62 2.88 2.32 3.21 3.44 ...
##  $qsec: num 16.5 17 18.6 19.4 17 ... ##$ vs  : num  0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 ...

# Now we can see that all the columns are in numeric, now we can plot wit the help of ggcorrplot and corrplot to check the correlation :

library(ggcorrplot)

r <- cor(df_1)

ggcorrplot(r,method = "circle", type = c("upper"), legend.title = "Corrplot MTCARS")
## Warning: guides(<scale> = FALSE) is deprecated. Please use guides(<scale> =
## "none") instead.

library(corrplot)
## corrplot 0.90 loaded
r <- cor(df_1)

corrplot(r, method = "circle")